May 18, 2020
Dr Carolyn Lam: Welcome to Circulation on the Run, your weekly podcast summary and backstage pass to the journal and its editors. I'm Dr Carolyn Lam, associate editor from the National Heart Center and Duke National University of Singapore.
Dr Greg Hundley: And I'm Greg Hundley, associate editor and Director of the Pauley Heart Center at VCU Health in Richmond, Virginia.
Dr Carolyn Lam: We've got a juicy, juicy feature discussion coming up. It's on a pre-specified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial, this time to ascertain whether PCSK9 inhibition reduces the risk of peripheral arterial disease events or venous thromboembolism after acute coronary syndrome. And, also to answer, these effects are related to levels of lipoprotein(a) or LDL cholesterol. I'm going to keep everyone guessing, as we get on our coffee chat and talk about the other papers in this issue.
And I want to go first, because the first original paper I want to discuss is really quite related to the feature discussion too. And it asks the question, what is the relationship between cholesterol levels and risk of venous thromboembolism? And, what is the effect of PCSK9 inhibition on the risk of venous thromboembolism? So this is from Dr Marston from the TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, and colleagues who performed a post hoc analysis of the FOURIER trial, testing whether evolocumab reduces the risk of venous thromboembolic events. That is, deep venous thrombosis, a pulmonary embolism. The authors then looked at data from FOURIER and the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial and combined them in a meta-analysis to assess whether there was a class effect of PCSK9 inhibition on the risk of venous thromboembolism. As a reminder, the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial tested alirocumab as the PCSK9 inhibitor.
Dr Greg Hundley: Well, Carolyn, what did they find?
Dr Carolyn Lam: Well, first Greg, remember, this is the first study to demonstrate a significant reduction in venous thromboembolism with PCSK9 inhibition. Interestingly, the reduction in venous thromboembolism was associated with the degree of lipoprotein(a) lowering and not LDL cholesterol lowering, suggesting that lipoprotein(a) may be the mediator of venous thromboembolic risk. More coming up in our feature discussion.
Dr Greg Hundley: Wow, Carolyn. Well, I'm going to go into the world of PCSKs, but talk about PCSK6. So this study involves a secretome analysis of cardiomyocytes as novel players in cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction and the corresponding author is Dr Florian Leuschner from Heidelberg University. So Carolyn, we know that acute occlusion of coronary artery results in swift tissue necrosis and bordering areas of the infarcted myocardium may also experience impaired blood supply and reduced oxygen delivery leading to altered metabolic and mechanical processes. While transcriptional changes in hypoxic cardiomyocytes are well-studied, little is known about the proteins that are actively secreted from these bordering cells.
So in this study, the authors established a novel secretome analysis of cardiomyocytes by combining stable isotope labeling and click chemistry with subsequent mass spectrometry analysis.
Dr Carolyn Lam: Wow, sounds like very advanced methods and what did they find?
Dr Greg Hundley: Okay. Carolyn lots of results here. They found that PCSK6 expression was elevated in hearts of mice, following three days of ligation of the left anterior descending artery, a finding confirmed by immunohistochemistry. ELISA measurements and human serum also indicated distinct kinetics for PCSK6 in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction with a peak on day three post infarction.
One of these beautiful studies combining basic science and human subjects in the same paper. In addition, adeno-associated virus nine mediated cardiomyocyte specific overexpression of PCSK6 in mice resulted in increased collagen expression and cardiac fibrosis as well as decreased left ventricular function after MI. So Carolyn, this study demonstrates how novel mass spectrometry-based approach allows the investigation of the secretome of primary cardiomyocytes. That's a first for that technique. And then analysis of hypoxia-induced secretion led to the identification of PCSK6 to be crucially involved in cardiac remodeling after MI, demonstrating increased collagen expression and cardiac fibrosis in those border zones.
Dr Carolyn Lam: Wow, fascinating, Greg. Well, I want to switch tracks here. Maybe ask, when you're choosing between antithrombotic therapies for patients with atrial fibrillation and a recent acute coronary syndrome, have you ever wondered what is the tradeoff of risk? Risk of bleeding and benefit that would be in terms of prevention of ischemic events over time? Well, guess what, I'm not going to put you on the spot here because our next paper addresses this very question. And it's from corresponding author, Dr Alexander from Duke Clinical Research Institute and colleagues who performed a post hoc analysis of the AUGUSTUS trial.
Dr Greg Hundley: Okay, Carolyn. I'm going to digress for just a minute here. We have this wonderful producer, Augie Rivera, and he's just fantastic and we should give him accolades because he really helps put all these together. Now I'm not going to ask him this time, but maybe in one of our future discussions, we may need to bring him into one of these because of his expanded knowledge of all of science, but getting back, Carolyn, can you remind us what is the AUGUSTUS trial?
Dr Carolyn Lam: All right, so in the AUGUSTUS trial, patients with AF and a recent ACS and/or PCI taking a P2Y12 inhibitor had less bleeding and rehospitalization with apixaban, than vitamin K antagonists and less bleeding with placebo than aspirin. The composite of death or hospitalization was also reduced with placebo compared to aspirin. However, the risk of several recurrent ischemic events, including stent thrombosis, where numerically higher in patients assigned placebo. Further analysis of the stent thrombosis outcomes suggested that most of the increase in risk was early within 30 days of randomization.
And hence the objective of the current paper, which is a post hoc analysis to explore the balance of risk and benefit using a variety of composite outcomes between randomization and 30 days and between 30 days and six months over time comparing apixaban versus vitamin K antagonists and aspirin versus placebo. So, here's what they found. Apixaban caused fewer ischemic and bleeding events than warfarin in the first 30 days after ACS and/or PCI and similar or fewer ischemic and bleeding events from day 30 to six months. Use of aspirin acutely, and for up to 30 days, resulted in an equal tradeoff between an increase in severe bleeding and reduction in severe ischemic events. However, after 30 days aspirin continued to increase bleeding without significantly reducing the ischemic events. So these results really informed shared patient-centric decision making regarding the ideal duration of use of aspirin after an ACS and/or PCI in patients with AF already receiving oral anticoagulation.
Dr Greg Hundley: Very nice, Carolyn. You know, lots of data coming out about how we perform anticoagulation, the administration of aspirin, both an atrial fibrillation, ischemic events, those with stents and this is just another piece of important data that we're so fortunate to have published in circulation. Well in the rest of the issue Carolyn, there's a lot of information. I want to talk about a research letter from Dr Armand Killick from the University of Pittsburgh, and he describes the outcomes of the first 1300 adult heart transplants in the United States following a policy change in the U S related to allocation of hearts.
In an EKG challenge, Dr Nobuhiro Takasugi from Gifu University and colleagues reviewed the etiology of wide complexes. Are they aberrantly conducted supraventricular beats? Are they premature ventricular complexes or intermittent ventricular prereq citation in an individual 70 years old presenting with symptoms of palpitations? Then Carolyn, in one of our COVID-19 articles, there's an in-depth piece by Dr Kevin Clerkin and associates from Columbia University. And they review coronavirus disease that is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2, which invades cells through the angiotensin converting enzyme or ACE-2 receptor. Among those with COVID-19, they note there is a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and more than 7% of patients suffer myocardial injury as evidence from elevated cardiac troponin values from the infection and in 22% of those that were critically ill.
And despite ACE-2 serving as a portal for infection, the role of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers requires further investigation. And right now, as you know, in your field is a heart failure expert, they are not recommendations to consider discontinuation for those drugs. And then lastly, in a prospective piece, Professor Gianluigi Condorelli from Humanitas University in Milan, presents critical organizational issues for cardiologists in this COVID-19 outbreak, including prioritization of unstable patients with cardiovascular disorders by postponing visits, and in this situation they did so by 80%, reorganizing clinical activities in terms of ward, ICU beds and outpatient visits, using a hub-and-spoke model to prioritize management acute MI, and then finally rapidly acquiring and training physicians and staff in the correct use of PPE. All very valuable lessons from Italy that was so hard hit by this devastating disease.
Dr Carolyn Lam: Indeed, and you know what, Greg, I just want to tell everybody about our circulation YouTube channel, where we have frontline interviews with people dealing with this from all over the world. Thank you to Augie and his team for making all of this happen. Let's go on to our future discussion, shall we?
Dr Greg Hundley: Absolutely.
Dr Carolyn Lam: Patients with acute coronary syndrome are at risk of peripheral artery disease events and venous thromboembolic events. Now we've heard a lot about PCSK9 inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but what is the effect of PCSK9 inhibition on the risk of PAD or venous thromboembolic events? Well, we're about to find out. The feature paper is a pre specified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial. And I'm so pleased to have the first and corresponding author, Dr Greg Schwartz with us from the University of Colorado, School of Medicine, as well as our guest editor, Dr Erin Michos from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. So welcome. And Greg, could I ask you to start us off. Tell us why you looked at this in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES and what you found.
Dr Gregory Schwartz: All of our patients or nearly all of our patients with acute coronary syndrome have had an atherothrombotic event and most of them also have a heightened inflammatory state. These factors are also thought to have a role in the pathogenesis of peripheral artery disease events, and perhaps also venous thromboembolism. We typically think of the risk factors for peripheral artery disease as being diabetes and smoking, and less so dyslipidemia, although dyslipidemia may play a role in PAD events as well. And although the association of LDL cholesterol levels with PAD events has been inconsistent in the literature, there's more consistency actually with levels of lipoprotein(a) and the risk of PAD events.
And that kind of makes sense because we think that Lp(a) has both atherogenic and pro-inflammatory and perhaps also prothrombotic properties. So elevated levels of that lipoprotein might promote the risk of PAD events. Now statins, which are obviously the mainstay of our treatment of patients with atherosclerosis, lower levels of LDL cholesterol, but they don't affect the levels of Lp(a). In contrast, inhibitors of PCSK9 lower the levels of both of those key lipoproteins. So we looked at the relationship of baseline and on treatment levels of both LDL cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) on the risk of PAD events and also venous thromboembolism, which has been associated with lipoprotein(a) in some observational studies.
Dr Carolyn Lam: Nice. So, could you tell us what were the results?
Dr Gregory Schwartz: So first, we used data from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial, which compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in nearly 19,000 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. And as you mentioned, Carolyn, those patients may be at elevated risk for other types of arterial and venous atherothrombotic or thrombotic events. We had three goals in our analysis. First, we looked at the relationship of PAD and venous thromboembolic events to the baseline levels of lipoprotein(a) and LDL in the trial cohort. Second, we looked at the effects of randomized treatment on both of those types of events, PAD events, and venous thromboembolism. And lastly, we determined the relationship of treatment effects on lipoproteins to the risk of those events in the alirocumab active treatment group. What we found are four principle findings. First, although this was an acute coronary syndrome cohort, and there were only four percent of the trial cohort who had a prior history of PAD, there was nonetheless a substantial risk of PAD events. About two percent of the placebo group suffered a PAD event during the trial and about one percent had a venous thromboembolic event.
In the placebo group. We found that there was a very strong association between baseline lipoprotein(a) concentration and the risk of PAD events. So to put that in a quantitative framework, if we compared the highest quartile of baseline lipoprotein(a) with patients in the lowest quartile of baseline lipoprotein(a), there was a more than twofold elevated risk of PAD events. And by that, I mean, critical limb ischemia, revascularization, or amputation for ischemia, more than a twofold elevated risk in the highest quartile of baseline lipoprotein(a). There was a non-significant relationship of venous thromboembolic events to the baseline concentration of lipoprotein(a). The patients who were treated with alirocumab, the PCSK9 inhibitor, achieved the expected approximately 50 percent reduction in LDL cholesterol and a median 23 percent reduction in lipoprotein(a) concentration.
And those effects were associated with significant reduction in PAD events, a hazard ratio of point six nine, and a nearly significant peak, well point zero six reduction in the risk of venous thromboembolic events with a hazard ratio of point six seven. And incidentally, in the same issue of circulation, there is a companion paper from the FOURIER study, which looked at the risk of venous thromboembolic events with another PCSK9 inhibitor, evolocumab. They found something very, very similar. And again, the results of that trial individually were kind of on the margins of statistical significance, but putting the two trials together in their analysis, there was a highly significant reduction in the risk of venous thromboembolic events with PCSK9 inhibition, compared with placebo. They also related those effects to lipoprotein(a), but not to LDL cholesterol levels.
So we found that the magnitude of the reduction in lipoprotein(a) was related to the reduced risk of PAD and VTE events, but a similar relationship between the magnitude of LDL cholesterol reduction and the risk of those events was not found. So to put it all together, lipoprotein(a) may be the stone that we haven't turned over, but should, when we encounter patients with PAD events or VTE events that we can't otherwise explain. And although these two trials were not purposed primarily to look at PAD events, the findings certainly suggest that treating elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) might be an effective strategy to reduce risk of PAD events and VTE.
Dr Carolyn Lam: Wow. Congratulations, Greg, that was beautifully summarized. A novel on at least two levels, right? One is the PCSK9 inhibition effects on these two outcomes that we never thought of before. And second, that role of lipoprotein(a). Erin, could I bring you into this discussion? You were guest editor when this paper came across your desk. Could you tell us what were the considerations and frame how novel these findings are for us?
Dr Erin Michos: Oh, Carolyn excited to be the associate editor for this paper. People who know me know; I love all things lipids. So as a preventive cardiologist, I'm very excited to have drugs like PCSK9 inhibitors in my toolbox. They are certainly known for their powerful LDL lowering effects, but also further lipoprotein little a reducing effect who these combined data show the PCSK9 inhibitors, not only reduced incident major adverse cardiovascular events and PAD events, but potentially can reduce VTE events as well in patients prescribed this therapy. So I thought it was really interesting and this new analysis from ODYSSEY, that it was the levels of lipoprotein little a, but not LDL cholesterol that predicted the risk of future PAD event and we saw a similar trend with VTE. And then furthermore, on treatment with alirocumab. It was the magnitude of Lp(a) little a reduction, but not LDL reduction that was associated with reduced PAD and VTE events.
And so this suggests that the reduction of PAD events is mediated by the lipoprotein little a lowering and not the LDL lowering. You know, lipoprotein(a) is a particularly risky type of LDL. It's strongly inheritable it's atherogenic similar to LDL, but prothrombotic, so it's this double whammy of badness due to its structural homology with plasminogen competes with berberine binding and inhibits tissue plasminogen activator and ultimately inhibits fibrinolysis. And so that's why lipoprotein(a) may be a mediator of this apparent effect of PCSK9 inhibitors with PAD and VTE incidents. So how do I put this in practice? Prior to PCSK9 inhibitors, we really didn't have any lipid modifying therapies to actually lower lipoprotein little a, except niacin, which we don't really use. This was mentioned by Greg, statins don't really lower lipoprotein(a) and they actually increase lipoprotein little as levels.
Although we do know that statins of course reduce ASCBD risk. So, I'm checking lipoprotein little a now in all my secondary prevention patients with established CVD and in high risk primary prevention with those with family history. While we're all anxiously awaiting outcome trials, such as the antisense oligonucleotides that can lower lipoprotein(a) by 80 percent, that therapy is not here now, we don't have that available in practice. But we do have PCSK9 inhibitors now, which can reduce lipoprotein little a by 20 to 25 percent and have meaningful outcome data like the alirocumab data we see here in this ODYSSEY OUTCOMES study.
With a 31 percent reduction of PAD, that is really meaningful. So I'm particularly excited about PCSK9 inhibitors and my patients with PAD who often have concomitant CAD, polyvascular disease, and then regarding the VTE effects, I think we should point out that the absolute risk reduction of VTE was pretty modest. We didn't really see significance until we combined it with the FOURIER data. So I think given the cost of the drug, it's not warranted to prescribe PCSK9 inhibitors to the general population, specifically for VTE prevention alone. But in patients with ASCBD, who would be recommended for a PCSK9 inhibitor to reduce incident CBD, you know, there may be this added special benefit of reducing risk of VTE as well.
Dr Gregory Schwartz: I just wanted to comment on a few things that Erin said, I think we’re really important. All of these patients were on intensive statin therapy in the background. So although we did not see a relationship between the further reduction in LDL cholesterol with alirocumab and the risk of these events, it doesn't mean that lowering LDL cholesterol has nothing to do with the risk of those events because everybody was on background statin therapy, 90 plus percent. So, I think that's important to point out. And I think the comment that was made about when to check a lipoprotein(a) level is very pertinent. And, in the European guidelines, they direct us to check lipoprotein(a) at least once in a lifetime for everyone, even if there's no other signs or risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
So I think as Erin indicated, with some tools in the toolbox now, and more tools, perhaps on the way with both the antisense, and also there are small interfering RNA approaches to lower lipoprotein(a), we should get more accustomed to looking at this, to turning over that stone. Even if we're not a hundred percent certain what to do with what we find underneath it, we should still look because there may be some things we can do in the interim.
Dr Carolyn Lam: Thanks, Greg. Erin, can I give you the last word? Any take home messages?
Dr Erin Michos: I definitely think that as we move forward with other therapies such as the small interfering RNA and the antisense oligonucleotides, we need really more phase three clinical trials specifically assessing VTE. And then I just want to mention, although I didn't write an editorial for this study, I did have the pleasure of writing an editorial for another ODYSSEY OUTCOMES analysis that was published in December. You know, my editorial was entitled, "Achievement, a Very Low LDL. Is it Time to Unlearn the Concern for Hemorrhagic Stroke?" And I mention this because one of the barriers I get in clinical practices, people get very worried about the very low LDL levels that we see with PCSK9 inhibitors and I think important to point out from ODYSSEY that, with the reduction in ischemic stroke, that there was no signal for increased hemorrhagic stroke and that provides additional reassurance.
So I think that's important to mention, I think this PCSK9 therapy is being under-utilized in clinical practice and ASCBD and PAD, these are really high-risk patients who have really high risk of recurrent events and our efforts to ward off these devastating consequences. We need to make sure that we're appropriately utilizing this important therapy.
Dr Carolyn Lam: Thank you so much, Erin. Thank you so much, Greg. You've been listening to Circulation on the Run. Don't forget to tune in again next week.
Dr Greg Hundley: This program is copyright, The American Heart Association, 2020.